MRI is based on the physical and chemical principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), a technique used to gain information about the nature of molecules.
How MRI WorksTo start, let's look at the parts of the MRI machine. The three basic components of the MRI machine are:
The largest part of the MRI is the primary magnet. Developing a magnetic field of adequate strength to create MRI images was an early hurdle to overcome in the development of this technology.
The gradient magnets are the 'fine-tuning' part of the MRI machine. They allow the MRI to focus on a specific part of the body. The gradient magnets are also responsible for the 'clanging' noise in a MRI.
Next to the part of your body being imaged is the coil. There are coils made for shoulders, knees, and other body parts. The coil will emit a radiofrequency that makes a MRI possible.
The Primary MagnetA permanent magnet (like the kind you use on your refrigerator door) powerful enough to use in a MRI would be too costly to produce and too cumbersome to store. The other way to make a magnet is to coil electrical wire and run a current through the wire. This creates a magnetic field within the center of the coil. In order to create a strong enough magnetic field to perform MRI, the coils of wire must have no resistance; therefore they are bathed in liquid helium at a temperature 450 degrees Fahrenheit below zero! This allows the coils to develop magnetic fields of 1.5 to 3 Tesla (the strength of most medical MRIs), more than 20,000 times stronger than the earth's magnetic field.
The Gradient MagnetsThere are three smaller magnets within a MRI machine called gradient magnets. These magnets are much smaller that the primary magnet (about 1/1000 as strong), but they allow the magnetic field to be altered very precisely. It is these gradient magnets that allow image "slices" of the body to be created. By altering the gradient magnets, the magnetic field can be specifically focused on a selected part of the body.
The CoilMRI uses properties of hydrogen atoms to distinguish between different tissues within the human body. The human body is composed primarily of hydrogen atoms (63%), other common elements are oxygen (26%), carbon (9%), nitrogen (1%), and relatively small amounts of phosphorus, calcium, and sodium. MRI uses a property of atoms called "spin" to distinguish differences between tissues such as muscle, fat, and tendon.
With a patient in a MRI machine, and the magnet turned on, the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms tend to spin in one of two directions. These hydrogen atom nuclei can transition their spin orientation, or precess, to the opposite orientation. In order to spin the other direction, the coil emits a radiofrequency (RF) that causes this transition (the frequency of energy required to make this transition is specific, and called the Larmour Frequency).
The signal that is used in creating MRI images is derived from the energy released by molecules transitioning, or precessing, from their high-energy to their low-energy state. This exchange of energy between spin states is called resonance, and thus the name magnetic resonance imaging.
Putting It All Together...The coil also functions to detect the energy given off by magnetic induction from the precessing of the atoms. A computer interprets the data, and creates images that display the different resonance characteristics of different tissue types. We see this as an image of shades of grey--some body tissues show up darker or lighter, all depending on the above processes.
Read on for answers to questions patients have about their MRI...