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Blood Donation Before Surgery

Should I donate my own blood before surgery?

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Updated February 14, 2012

Blood loss is a part of surgery, and some surgeries, including joint replacement, are associated with blood loss sufficient to lower your blood count after the procedure. If you develop a post-operative anemia, or low blood count, a transfusion may be recommended. Most often, blood transfusions are given from blood donated by volunteers.

Can I get a disease from donated blood?
Many patients are concerned about the risks associated with blood transfusions. Disease transmission is the most common concern, and while testing is sophisticated and safe, it is not 100-percent risk-free. Risks of immunosuppression and allergic reactions are also associated with donor transfusions.

One option is that patients can give their own blood before surgery to be saved in the event they need a transfusion after surgery.

How does preoperative blood donation work?
Patients who decide to give blood prior to surgery make the donation three to five weeks before their procedure. In the time between the donation and the planned surgery, the body replenishes much of the blood. If the patient's blood count drops after the procedure, he is given the blood back.

What are the advantages of preoperative blood donation?
Patients are drawn to this procedure because of concerns about disease transmission associated with donated blood. By using their own blood, the risk of disease transmission is lowered. Furthermore, the risk of an allergy-type reaction or of immunosuppression, both possible side effects of donated blood, is decreased by using your own blood.

What are the disadvantages of preoperative blood donation?
The primary disadvantage of donating your own blood is that your body does not have time to adequately replenish all of its blood. It is known that patients who donate their own blood are much more likely to require a blood transfusion. Therefore, patents should only consider preoperative donation if there is a significant chance (more than 50 percent) of needing a transfusion after surgery. Many patients are not suitable candidates for preoperative blood donation. This includes patients with low blood counts, cardiac disease, and other medical conditions.

Should I Donate My Own Blood

In general, I give patients who have no significant medical problems the option of preoperative blood donation for their upcoming surgery. If there is little chance of needing a transfusion for the planned surgery, I recommend against this preoperative donation.

If you are interested in donating your own blood, talk to your doctor. Many patients may not be suitable candidates for preoperative blood donation. However, in the right patient and certain surgeries, preoperative blood donation may be a reasonable option.

Sources:

Keating EM and Meding JB. "Perioperative Blood Management Practices in Elective Orthopaedic Surgery" J. Am. Acad. Ortho. Surg., November/December 2002; 10: 393 - 400.

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