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Meniscus Tear Treatment

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Updated April 09, 2014

meniscus tear treatment surgery

A meniscus tear may require surgical treatment if the symptoms interfere with activities.

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What is a Torn Meniscus?:

A meniscus tear is an injury to the shock absorber of the knee joint. Two types of cartilage are in the knee. The meniscus is a type of cartilage that sits between the thigh bone and shin bone. The meniscus functions to cushion the knee joint and provide stability to the knee joint. A meniscus tear is a common injury to the meniscus.

Non-Surgical Treatments for a Meniscus Tear:

An acute meniscus tear can be treated with ice application, rest, anti-inflammatory medications, and physical therapy. These simple measures will help decrease swelling and pain in the joint.

Depending on the size and type of the meniscus tear, and the physical demands of the patient, these may be the only treatments necessary. A cortisone injection can be a helpful treatment to reduce inflammation within the joint, but it will not help heal the meniscus tear. If these treatments fail to provide relief, a surgical procedure may be recommended.

When Surgery is Necessary:

If your meniscus tear symptoms are not significant, surgery can often be delayed or avoided altogether. Many people live normal, active lifestyles despite having a meniscus tear. It is only when the meniscus tear becomes symptomatic, and interferes with activities, that surgery to treat the meniscus tear should be considered.

Surgery has the best results when the primary symptoms of the meniscus tear are mechanical. This means that the meniscus tear is causing a catching or locking sensation of the knee. When the meniscus tear is causing pain only, the results of surgery may not be as reliable.

Arthroscopic Meniscectomy for Meniscus Tears:

A meniscectomy is a procedure to remove the torn portion of the meniscus. This procedure is far more commonly performed than a meniscus repair. The meniscectomy is done to remove the damaged portion of meniscus, while leaving as much healthy meniscus as possible. The meniscectomy usually has a quick recovery, and allows for rapid resumption of activities.

Meniscus Repair:

A meniscus repair is a surgical procedure done to repair the damaged meniscus. The meniscus repair can restore the normal anatomy of the knee, and has a better long-term prognosis when successful. However, the meniscus repair is a more significant surgery, the recovery is longer, and, because of limited blood supply to the meniscus, it is not always possible.

Meniscus Transplantation:

Meniscus transplantation consists of placing the meniscus from a donor patient into an individual who has had their meniscus removed. The ideal patient for a meniscus transplant is someone who had their meniscus removed, and subsequently begins to develop knee pain. Meniscus transplant is not performed for an acute meniscus tear, rather it is performed when removal of the entire meniscus has caused persistent pain in the knee.

Prognosis After Meniscus Surgery:

When you tear the meniscus of your knee, the shock absorbing ability of the joint is threatened. Because of this, there is an increased risk of developing damage to the cartilage surface of the knee joint. Loss of the meniscus places more of a burden on the cartilage surfaces of the joint and they are more likely to develop wear-and-tear arthritis.

You can make changes to decrease your risk of developing arthritis after having sustained a meniscus tear. For example, weight loss, low-impact exercise, and prevention of further trauma to the joint will all improve the long-term prognosis.

Source:

Greis PE, et al. "Meniscal Injury: II. Management" J. Am. Acad. Ortho. Surg., May/June 2002; 10: 177 - 187.

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